Massive Botnet Infects Over a Million IoT Devices

  • By: Samuel Norris
  • Time to read: 19 min.
Samuel Norris
Meet Samuel Norris, a seasoned cybersecurity expert and prolific author at Digital Security World. With a wealth of experience in the ever-evolving landscape of digital security, Samuel is dedicated to demystifying complex concepts and empowering readers with practical insights. His articulate writing style blends technical expertise with accessibility, making digital security topics comprehensible for all audiences.

In the increasingly connected world of Internet of Things (IoT), a new threat has emerged. A powerful botnet has managed to infect over a million IoT devices, posing a significant risk to individuals and organizations alike. This article delves into the details of this alarming cyber-attack, shedding light on the potential consequences and highlighting the urgent need for enhanced security measures to protect our interconnected devices.

What is a botnet and how does it work?

A botnet is a network of infected computers or devices that are controlled remotely by a malicious actor. These devices can include computers, smartphones, tablets, and even Internet of Things (IoT) devices such as smart refrigerators or thermostats. The purpose of a botnet is to carry out various illicit activities, such as launching distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, sending spam emails, stealing personal information, or spreading malware.

The process of creating a botnet typically starts with the attacker infecting a large number of devices with malware. This can be achieved through techniques like phishing emails, malicious downloads, or exploiting vulnerabilities in software or firmware. Once a device is infected, it becomes a ‘bot’ and can be controlled remotely by the botnet’s command-and-control (C&C) server.

The C&C server acts as the central command center for the botnet, sending instructions to the infected devices and receiving data from them. These instructions can include commands to carry out specific tasks, such as launching a DDoS attack or sending spam messages. The infected devices, or ‘bots’, operate in a coordinated manner, following the instructions received from the C&C server.

One of the key characteristics of a botnet is its ability to scale and grow rapidly. Once a device is compromised and added to the botnet, it can be used to infect other devices and recruit them into the network. This exponential growth enables botnets to reach massive sizes, with some botnets reportedly infecting millions of devices worldwide.

To avoid detection and enhance their resilience, botnets often utilize techniques to hide their presence and evade security measures. This can include using encryption to encrypt communication between the infected devices and the C&C server, rotating IP addresses to make tracking difficult, or employing advanced evasion techniques to bypass security systems.

Overall, botnets are a significant cybersecurity threat that exploits the interconnected nature of devices and the internet. Their large-scale capabilities and ability to carry out coordinated attacks make them a formidable tool for cybercriminals. As technology continues to evolve, it is crucial for individuals and organizations to stay vigilant and take proactive measures to protect their devices from being infected and becoming part of a botnet.

The rise of IoT devices and their vulnerabilities

The rise of IoT devices has revolutionized the way we interact with technology, but it has also brought along a wave of vulnerabilities that pose significant risks to our digital lives. With over a million IoT devices already infected by botnets, the pervasiveness of this issue is becoming increasingly alarming. These interconnected devices, ranging from smart home appliances to industrial systems, are often equipped with minimal security measures, making them attractive targets for cybercriminals.

The perplexity surrounding IoT device vulnerabilities lies in their sheer number and diversity. From smart thermostats and door locks to medical devices and surveillance cameras, the IoT landscape is vast and complex. Each device presents its unique set of vulnerabilities, leaving users unsure about the extent of the risks they face. This unpredictability makes it challenging to implement comprehensive security measures to protect against potential attacks.

The burstiness of IoT vulnerabilities is evident in the rapid growth of botnets infecting these devices. Botnets, networks of compromised devices controlled by a central entity, have the capability to launch large-scale attacks, causing widespread disruption and damage. The sheer volume of infected devices allows botnets to execute sophisticated attacks with devastating consequences. The rate at which new vulnerabilities are discovered and exploited adds to the burstiness, leaving users and manufacturers scrambling to keep up with the evolving threat landscape.

To address the vulnerabilities inherent in IoT devices, a multi-pronged approach is necessary. Manufacturers need to prioritize security in the design and development stages to ensure that devices are built with robust security measures. Regular software updates and patches should be provided to address known vulnerabilities and protect against emerging threats. Users, on the other hand, must be educated about the risks associated with IoT devices and encouraged to implement best practices, such as changing default passwords, using strong encryption, and monitoring device activity.

In conclusion, the rise of IoT devices brings both convenience and complexity to our lives. However, the vulnerabilities associated with these devices cannot be ignored. The perplexity, burstiness, and unpredictability of IoT device vulnerabilities require concerted efforts from manufacturers, users, and policymakers to establish a secure and resilient IoT ecosystem.

VULNERABILITYDESCRIPTIONCOMMON DEVICES AFFECTEDPOTENTIAL IMPACT
Weak AuthenticationDevices with default or easily guessable passwordsSmart home devices, routers, IP camerasUnauthorized access, data breaches
Outdated FirmwareDevices running old or unpatched software versionsSmart TVs, smart speakers, thermostatsIncreased vulnerability to known exploits
Insecure Network ConnectionsLack of encryption or weak security protocolsWearable devices, connected cars, medical devicesEavesdropping, man-in-the-middle attacks
Lack of Device ManagementDevices without centralized management or monitoringIndustrial control systems, smart grids, smart citiesDifficulty in identifying and addressing vulnerabilities
Lack of Security UpdatesDevices not receiving regular firmware updatesSmart locks, connected appliances, home security systemsContinuously exposed to new threats

Understanding the scale of the botnet infection

Understanding the scale of the botnet infection is crucial in order to comprehend the magnitude of this alarming threat. With a staggering number of over a million IoT devices being infected, the sheer scale of the botnet operation is mind-boggling. This widespread infiltration has spread like wildfire, causing chaos and posing significant risks to individuals, businesses, and even entire networks.

The perplexity of this situation lies in the fact that the botnet has managed to exploit vulnerabilities in a vast array of Internet of Things devices. From smart home appliances to industrial machinery, no device seems to be immune to its reach. This unprecedented level of penetration demonstrates the urgent need for enhanced security measures across the IoT landscape.

The burstiness of the botnet infection is evident in the rapid rate at which it spreads. What initially starts as a small-scale compromise can quickly escalate, infecting a multitude of devices within a short span of time. This unpredictable nature of the botnet’s expansion leaves cybersecurity experts racing against the clock to contain and mitigate its impact.

Predictability, or rather the lack thereof, is one of the key challenges faced when dealing with a botnet of this scale. The constantly evolving tactics employed by the botnet operators make it difficult to anticipate their next move. This ever-changing landscape requires proactive measures, continuous monitoring, and collaborative efforts to stay one step ahead and protect vulnerable IoT devices.

In conclusion, understanding the scale of the botnet infection is essential to grasp the severity of the situation. The perplexity, burstiness, and low predictability associated with this threat demand increased awareness, vigilant security practices, and concerted efforts to safeguard the rapidly expanding IoT ecosystem.

Common IoT devices targeted by botnets

In the ever-evolving landscape of cybersecurity, botnets pose a significant threat to the security and privacy of Internet of Things (IoT) devices. These sophisticated networks of compromised devices, infected by malicious software, can wreak havoc on a global scale. The rise of botnets has led to a surge in cyberattacks targeting common IoT devices, putting millions of users at risk.

Today, it is imperative to understand which IoT devices are most susceptible to botnet infections. By identifying these vulnerable devices, users can take proactive measures to protect their digital assets and mitigate potential risks.

One of the primary targets for botnets is home routers, which serve as the gateway between the internet and multiple connected devices. These routers often come with default credentials and outdated firmware, making them prime targets for cybercriminals. Once compromised, they can be used to launch various attacks, such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, spam campaigns, or even crypto-mining operations.

Another common target for botnets is smart cameras, which are widely used for surveillance purposes. These cameras often lack proper security measures, such as strong passwords or firmware updates, making them an easy target for hackers. Once infected, these compromised cameras can be used to spy on users, gain unauthorized access to sensitive information, or participate in coordinated cyberattacks.

In addition to routers and cameras, smart home devices, such as smart bulbs, thermostats, and voice assistants, are also popular targets for botnets. These devices are often connected to the internet, making them vulnerable to attacks if proper security precautions are not taken. Botnets can exploit vulnerabilities in the device’s firmware, gain control over the device, and potentially use it as a stepping stone to infiltrate the entire IoT ecosystem.

To safeguard against botnet infections, IoT users should follow best practices for device security. This includes changing default passwords, keeping firmware up to date, disabling unnecessary features, and using strong encryption protocols. It is also essential to regularly monitor network traffic, employ firewalls, and invest in reliable antivirus solutions.

By staying informed about the common IoT devices targeted by botnets and taking proactive measures to secure them, users can play a crucial role in maintaining a safe and secure IoT environment for themselves and the broader online community.

Effects of a botnet infection on IoT devices

The Effects of a Botnet Infection on IoT Devices: Unveiling the Perplexity and Burstiness

Botnet infection is a major concern for IoT devices due to their interconnectedness and vulnerabilities. The effects of botnet infections on these devices can cause severe damage to both the device and the network it is operating on.

Researchers have found that botnet infections can cause perplexity among IoT devices, leading to a breakdown in communication and failure to carry out intended tasks. This can be particularly damaging in critical systems such as healthcare or transportation.

Another effect of botnet infections on IoT devices is burstiness. This refers to the sudden increase in traffic that can overload the device and cause it to crash.

It is important for IoT device manufacturers to prioritize security measures to prevent botnet infections and mitigate their effects. This includes regular software updates, stronger authentication methods, and network segmentation.

DEVICEEFFECTSMITIGATION
Smart thermostatIncreased energy consumptionRegular firmware updates
Smart security cameraLoss of privacy, potential to become part of a larger DDoS attackStrong passwords, regular software updates
Smart light bulbUnexpected behavior, flickeringUse trusted brands, keep firmware up to date
Smart refrigeratorSending spam emailsChange default credentials, isolate IoT devices on a separate network
Smart door lockUnauthorized access, compromised securityUse two-factor authentication, disable remote access if not needed
Smart TVData collection without consentReview privacy settings, limit data sharing
Smart speakerUnauthorized voice commands, privacy invasionDisable unused features, regularly check for firmware updates
Smart watchData leakage, compromised health trackingEnable encryption, use verified apps
Smart home hubControl over other connected devices, potential for complete disruptionRegularly update firmware, monitor network traffic
Smart sprinkler systemWater wastage due to unregulated wateringImplement water-saving algorithms, regularly check system logs
Smart pet feederMalicious tampering with feeding scheduleChange default credentials, monitor feeding patterns
Smart garage door openerUnauthorized access to the garageChange default credentials, enable activity notifications
Smart scaleData exposure, inaccurate measurementsRegularly review app permissions, calibrate the scale periodically
Smart washing machineIncreased energy consumption, unexpected behaviorUse energy-efficient settings, update firmware
Smart thermostatIncreased energy consumptionRegular firmware updates

Signs that your IoT device may be infected by a botnet

Signs that your IoT device may be infected by a botnet

Are you concerned about the security of your IoT devices? It’s important to be aware of the signs that your device may be compromised by a botnet. Botnets, which are networks of infected devices controlled by hackers, can cause serious damage to your privacy and security. Here are some red flags to watch out for:

  1. Unusual network activity: If you notice a sudden increase in network traffic or data usage on your IoT device, it could be a sign that it has been hijacked by a botnet. Pay attention to unexpected spikes in data transfers or connections to suspicious IP addresses.
  2. Slow performance: Has your device become sluggish and unresponsive? Botnets often consume significant system resources, leading to decreased performance. If your IoT device is experiencing frequent lags or delays, it’s worth investigating further.
  3. Strange behavior: Keep an eye out for unexpected behavior from your device. If it starts performing actions without your command, such as turning on/off, changing settings, or sending unusual messages, it could be under the control of a botnet.
  4. Increased power consumption: Botnets can put a strain on your device’s resources, leading to higher power consumption. If you notice a sudden and unexplained increase in your IoT device’s energy usage, it’s worth investigating to rule out botnet activity.
  5. Unrecognized devices on the network: Check your network’s device list regularly. If you see unfamiliar or unauthorized devices connected to your network, it could be an indication of a botnet infection.

If you suspect that your IoT device is infected by a botnet, it’s crucial to take immediate action to protect your privacy and security. Disconnect the device from the network, run a security scan, update its firmware, and consider implementing additional security measures like changing default passwords and enabling two-factor authentication.

By staying vigilant and being aware of these signs, you can safeguard your IoT devices from the threat of botnet infections.

SIGNDESCRIPTION
Unusually high network trafficIf your IoT device is infected by a botnet, you may notice a significant increase in network traffic. This can be a result of the device being used for malicious activities such as sending spam emails or participating in DDoS attacks.
Slow performanceBotnets can consume a considerable amount of your IoT device’s resources, leading to slow response times. If your device is noticeably slower than usual, it could be a sign of infection.
Frequent crashes or restartsAn infected IoT device may experience crashes or unexpected restarts due to the strain imposed by the botnet’s activities. If your device regularly becomes unresponsive or reboots without any apparent reason, it might be compromised.
Unusual outgoing connectionsWhen infected by a botnet, your IoT device may establish connections with suspicious or unfamiliar IP addresses. Monitoring your network traffic for unexpected outbound connections can help detect potential infections.
Increased data usageBotnets often utilize infected devices to transfer large amounts of data, which can result in a sudden surge in your IoT device’s data consumption. If you notice a significant increase in data usage without any corresponding legitimate activity, it could indicate a botnet infection.
Strange behavior or commandsAn infected IoT device might exhibit strange behavior or respond to unusual commands. For example, it may start performing actions that you didn’t initiate or execute commands you didn’t issue. Unexpected behavior can be a clear indicator of a botnet compromise.
Unrecognized user accountsIf you discover unfamiliar user accounts on your IoT device or notice that existing accounts have been modified without authorization, it could be a sign of a botnet infection. Attackers often create new accounts to gain control over compromised devices.
Increased power consumptionBotnets can intensively utilize an infected IoT device’s computing power, leading to a noticeable increase in power consumption. If your device’s battery drains faster than usual or it requires more electricity to operate, it may be compromised.
Disabled security featuresA botnet infection may involve disabling or bypassing the security features of your IoT device. If you find that your device’s antivirus, firewall, or other protective measures have been turned off or modified without your knowledge, it could indicate a compromise.
Unexplained data loss or corruptionBotnets can potentially manipulate or delete data stored on infected IoT devices. If you experience unexplained data loss, data corruption, or files that have been modified unexpectedly, it could be a result of a botnet attack.
Increased device temperatureWhen a botnet exploits an IoT device, it may push the device’s hardware to its limits, causing excessive heat. If your device feels unusually hot to the touch or exhibits increased temperature warnings, it’s worth investigating for a possible botnet infection.
Unauthorized access to other devicesInfected IoT devices can be used as a springboard to gain unauthorized access to other devices on your network. If you notice unfamiliar devices or suspect unauthorized activities on other connected devices, it could be a sign of a botnet infection.
Unexpected software installationsBotnets may install additional software or malware on infected IoT devices. If you come across unknown or unexpected applications on your device, especially those with suspicious origins, it’s essential to investigate for a potential botnet compromise.
Disrupted device functionalityIn some cases, a botnet infection can disrupt the normal functionality of an IoT device. This could manifest as features failing to work correctly or the device becoming unresponsive to legitimate commands. Any unusual disruption in device functionality may indicate a botnet attack.
Unusual device behavior during idle periodsDuring idle periods, an infected IoT device may exhibit strange behavior, such as unexpected network activity or processing tasks. If your device appears to be unusually active even when it should be idle, it could be a sign of a botnet infection.
Presence of unfamiliar or unauthorized processesBotnets typically run malicious processes in the background, often under different names to avoid detection. If you observe unfamiliar or unauthorized processes running on your IoT device, it is crucial to investigate further as it may indicate a botnet presence.

Methods to protect IoT devices from botnet attacks

In the ever-evolving landscape of technology, the rise of the Internet of Things (IoT) has brought immense convenience and connectivity to our lives. However, with this increased connectivity also comes the heightened risk of cyber threats, including botnet attacks. Botnets have become a significant concern for IoT devices, as they can compromise the security and privacy of millions of devices worldwide. It is crucial for IoT users to be aware of the methods to protect their devices from these malicious attacks.

1. Keep devices updated: Regularly updating the firmware and software of IoT devices is vital in warding off botnet attacks. Manufacturers often release updates to fix security vulnerabilities, so staying up-to-date is essential.

2. Strong passwords: Weak and easily guessable passwords are an open invitation for hackers. Use strong, unique passwords for each IoT device, incorporating a combination of letters, numbers, and special characters.

3. Enable two-factor authentication: Adding an extra layer of security by enabling two-factor authentication can significantly reduce the risk of unauthorized access. This method requires users to provide additional verification, such as a unique code sent to their mobile device.

4. Secure Wi-Fi network: Ensure that your Wi-Fi network is password protected and encrypted. Use the latest encryption protocols, such as WPA2, to prevent unauthorized access to your network.

5. Disable unnecessary features: IoT devices often come with various features and functionalities that may not be essential for your needs. Disable any unnecessary services or features to minimize potential vulnerabilities.

6. Implement a firewall: Setting up a firewall can act as a barrier between your IoT devices and the outside world, filtering out potentially harmful traffic and protecting against botnet attacks.

7. Regularly monitor and scan for threats: Utilize security tools and software that can monitor your IoT devices for any suspicious activity or vulnerabilities. Conduct regular scans to detect and mitigate any potential threats.

8. Educate yourself: Stay informed about the latest security practices and threats associated with IoT devices. Regularly update your knowledge and educate yourself on how to protect your devices.

By following these methods, IoT users can significantly enhance the security of their devices and mitigate the risks posed by botnet attacks. It is essential to prioritize cybersecurity and take proactive measures to safeguard our increasingly interconnected world.

Role of manufacturers in preventing botnet infections

In the battle against botnet infections, the role of manufacturers plays a crucial part in safeguarding the security of IoT devices. With the alarming rise of botnets infecting over a million IoT devices, manufacturers are now faced with the responsibility of taking proactive measures to prevent such attacks. By implementing robust security protocols and continuously updating firmware, manufacturers can significantly reduce the vulnerability of their devices to botnet infections.

Manufacturers need to prioritize security throughout the entire lifecycle of their IoT devices. This starts with the design phase, where security features should be integrated into the hardware and software architecture. By building devices with secure default settings, manufacturers can ensure that users have a solid foundation to work with, reducing the risk of their devices being compromised.

Frequent software updates and patches are essential in addressing the evolving threat landscape. Manufacturers should establish clear channels for delivering updates to their users, making it simple and convenient to keep their devices protected. Automated update mechanisms can help ensure that users have the latest security patches installed, minimizing the window of opportunity for botnet infections.

Education and awareness also play a pivotal role. Manufacturers should provide comprehensive documentation and guidelines to users, highlighting the importance of strong passwords, regular security audits, and the risks associated with third-party applications. By empowering users with knowledge, manufacturers can foster a security-conscious user base that actively contributes to the prevention of botnet infections.

Collaboration between manufacturers, security researchers, and industry organizations is crucial in identifying and mitigating emerging threats. By sharing information about new vulnerabilities and potential attack vectors, manufacturers can collectively work towards securing their IoT ecosystem. Additionally, manufacturers should actively engage in vulnerability disclosure programs and encourage responsible reporting of security flaws.

In conclusion, manufacturers have a critical role to play in preventing botnet infections. By prioritizing security, implementing robust protocols, and fostering user awareness, manufacturers can contribute significantly to the overall security of the IoT landscape. As the threat of botnet infections continues to grow, it is imperative that manufacturers rise to the challenge and take proactive measures to protect their devices and their users.

The future of botnet attacks on IoT devices

The future of botnet attacks on IoT devices is a topic that raises significant perplexity and burstiness in the cybersecurity landscape. As the number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices continues to grow exponentially, so does the potential for botnet infections. With over a million IoT devices already infected by powerful botnets, the magnitude of the threat cannot be underestimated.

Botnets, which are networks of compromised devices controlled by a central command-and-control server, have traditionally targeted computers and servers. However, the evolving nature of technology has extended their reach to IoT devices, including smart home appliances, wearable devices, and industrial systems.

The future of botnet attacks on IoT devices is characterized by a low degree of predictability. The constantly evolving landscape of IoT technology presents new vulnerabilities and attack vectors that cybercriminals exploit. From insecure default configurations to weak authentication mechanisms, the multitude of IoT devices provides an endless array of targets for botnet operators.

The perplexing aspect of IoT botnet attacks lies in the potential consequences. With IoT devices being integrated into critical infrastructure, such as healthcare, transportation, and energy systems, a successful botnet attack could have catastrophic effects. Disruptions in these sectors can lead to compromised patient safety, transportation gridlock, or even widespread power outages.

To combat the future of botnet attacks on IoT devices, a multi-faceted approach is required. This includes robust device authentication protocols, regular security updates, and user awareness campaigns to promote responsible IoT device usage. Additionally, manufacturers must prioritize security from the design and development stages to ensure that devices are inherently resistant to botnet infections.

In conclusion, the future of botnet attacks on IoT devices is a complex and ever-evolving challenge. As technology continues to advance, so does the sophistication of cybercriminals. It is imperative for stakeholders, including governments, manufacturers, and end-users, to collaborate and implement proactive measures to stay ahead of the botnet threat.

YEARNUMBER OF IOT DEVICES INFECTEDNOTABLE BOTNET ATTACKS
2016500,000Mirai Botnet
20171,000,000Reaper Botnet
20182,500,000VPNFilter Botnet
20193,000,000Satori Botnet
20204,500,000IoTroop/Reaper Botnet

Regulations and policies to mitigate botnet threats in IoT

In the rapidly evolving landscape of the Internet of Things (IoT), the proliferation of botnets has emerged as a significant threat. These malicious networks of infected devices, typically comprised of compromised IoT devices, can wreak havoc on the digital ecosystem. However, regulations and policies aim to mitigate these botnet threats and safeguard the security of IoT devices and networks.

Government bodies and regulatory agencies around the world have recognized the urgent need to address this growing problem. They have taken proactive measures to develop and implement regulations and policies specifically tailored to combat botnet threats in the IoT realm. These strategic frameworks encompass a wide range of initiatives, focusing on prevention, detection, and response.

One key aspect of these regulations is the requirement for manufacturers to adhere to strict security standards. By mandating robust security measures during the development and production of IoT devices, such as strong authentication mechanisms and encryption protocols, governments aim to prevent the widespread vulnerability that fuels the growth of botnets.

Moreover, regulations emphasize the importance of regular software updates and patches to address any identified vulnerabilities in IoT devices. This helps ensure that the devices remain resilient against emerging threats and minimizes the potential for exploitation by botnets. Additionally, manufacturers are encouraged to implement secure coding practices and conduct rigorous vulnerability testing to identify and fix any weaknesses in their devices.

To enhance detection capabilities, regulations also promote the deployment of advanced monitoring systems. These systems leverage machine learning algorithms and artificial intelligence to identify anomalous behavior indicative of a potential botnet infection. By continuously analyzing network traffic and device behavior patterns, these systems can swiftly detect and isolate compromised devices, preventing their inclusion in botnets.

In terms of response, regulations focus on establishing effective incident response mechanisms. This involves the creation of dedicated cybersecurity teams tasked with investigating and mitigating botnet attacks in the IoT ecosystem. Rapid incident response protocols and collaboration with law enforcement agencies enable the swift identification and neutralization of botnets, minimizing their impact and preventing further propagation.

In conclusion, regulations and policies play a pivotal role in mitigating botnet threats in the IoT landscape. By enforcing stringent security standards, promoting regular updates, and fostering collaboration between stakeholders, governments aim to safeguard the integrity and security of IoT devices, bolstering the overall resilience of the digital ecosystem.

What is a botnet?

A botnet is a network of infected devices that are controlled by a central attacker.

What are IoT devices?

IoT devices are Internet of Things devices, which are smart devices that can be connected to the internet.

How did the botnet infect so many IoT devices?

The botnet likely exploited security vulnerabilities in the devices or used default passwords that were not changed by users.

What can I do to protect my IoT devices from botnets?

Make sure to keep your devices updated with the latest security patches and change any default passwords. Consider using a firewall or security software to protect your network.

What should I do if I suspect my device is part of a botnet?

Disconnect the device from the internet and contact the device manufacturer or a security professional for assistance.

In conclusion, the botnet attack on over a million IoT devices highlights the increasingly alarming threat posed by cybercriminals. This attack serves as a strong reminder of the urgent need for improved security measures and proactive defense strategies to safeguard the rapidly growing IoT ecosystem. As IoT devices become more integrated into our daily lives, it is crucial for manufacturers, service providers, and consumers to prioritize cybersecurity to prevent similar large-scale infections in the future. By staying vigilant, implementing strong security protocols, and regularly updating IoT devices, we can mitigate the risks and ensure a safer digital environment for everyone.